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2013年考研英语(二)试题及答案解析

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内容提要:
    说明:由于试题一题多卷,因此选择题部分,不同考生有不同顺序,请在核对答案时注意题目和选项内容。 Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SH

说明:由于试题一题多卷,因此选择题部分,不同考生有不同顺序,请在核对答案时注意题目和选项内容。

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. 1 a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been 2 for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very 3 of money itself," only to 4 itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5 in coming?

Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6 the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very 7 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecornmunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8 form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something thai many consumers are unwilling to 10 . Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. 13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer.

Fourth, electronic means of payment may 14 security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information 15 there. The fact that this is not an 16 occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17 from someone else's accounts. The 18 of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to 19 security issues. A further concern is that the use of e lectronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20 that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy.

1. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise

2. [A] off [B] back [C] over [D] around

3. [A] power [B] concept [C] history [D] role

4. [A] reward [B] resist [C] resume [D] reverse

5. [A] silent [B] sudden [C] slow [D] steady

6. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] on

7. [A] imaginative [B] expensive [C] sensitive [D] productive

8. [A] similar [B] original [C] temporary [D] dominant

9. [A] collect [B] provide [C] copy [D] print

10. [A] give up [B] take over [C] bring back [D] pass down

11. [A] before [B] after [C] since [D] when

12. [A] kept [B] borrowed [C] released [D] withdrawn

13. [A] Unless [B] Until [C] Because [D] Though

14. [A] hide [B] express [C] raise [D]ease

15. [A] analyzed [B] shared [C] stored [D] displayed

16. [A] unsafe [B] unnatural [C] uncommon [D] unclear

17. [A] steal [B] choose [C] benefit [D] return

18. [A] consideration [B] prevention [C] manipulation [D] justification

19. [A] cope with [B] fight against [C] adapt to [D] call for

20. [A] chunk [B] chip [C] path [D] trail

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”

Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.

Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared.

There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education.

21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______

[A] the impact of technological advances

[B] the alleviation of job pressure

[C] the shrinkage of textile mills

[D] the decline of middle-class incomes

22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______

[A] work on cheap software

[B] ask for a moderate salary

[C] adopt an average lifestyle

[D] contribute something unique

23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______

[A] gains of technology have been erased

[B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

[C] factories are making much less money than before

[D] new jobs and services have been offered

24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____

[A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution

[B] to ensure more education for people

[C] ro advance economic globalization

[D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text?

[A] New Law Takes Effect

[B] Technology Goes Cheap

[C] Average Is Over

[D] Recession Is Bad

Text 2

A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic inclued settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for exanmle, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.

Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide nemcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigrantion system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.

Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.

With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.

Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.

26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____

[A] immigrate across the Atlantic.

[B] leave their home countries for good.

[C] stay in a foregin temporaily.

[D] find permanent jobs overseas.

27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration stystem in the US____

[A] needs new immigrant categories.

[B] has loosened control over immigrants.

[C] should be adopted to meet challenges.

[D] has been fixeed via political means.

28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___

[A] fiancial incentives.

[B] a global recognition.

[C] opportunities to get regular jobs.

[D] the freedom to stay and leave.

29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __

[A] as faithful partners.

[B] with economic favors.

[C] with regal tolerance.

[D] as mighty rivals.

30 选出最适合文章的标题

[A] come and go: big mistake.

[B] living and thriving : great risk.

[C] with or without : great risk.

[D] legal or illegal: big mistake.

Text 3

Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.

But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners.

John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.

31. The time needed in making decisions may____.

[A] vary according to the urgency of the situation

[B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction

[C] depend on the importance of the assessment

[D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snao decisions____.

[A] can be associative

[B] are not unconscious

[C] can be dangerous

[D] are not impulsive

33. Toreverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should____.

[A] trust our first impression

[B] do as people usually do

[C] think before we act

[D] ask for expert advice

34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____.

[A] critical assessment

[B]‘‘thin sliced ’’study

[C] sensible explanation

[D] adequate information

35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____.

[A] tolerant

[B] uncertain

[C] optimistic

[D] doubtful

Text 4

Europe is not a gender-equality heaven.In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions,and Europe,s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male .indeed,women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.

The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent.This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.

Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family?

“Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.

I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. Bur, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.

After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.

If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women---whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers--and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.

36. In the European corporate workplace, generally_____.

[A] women take the lead

[B] men have the final say

[C] corporate governance is overwhelmed

[D] senior management is family-friendly

37. The European Union’s intended legislation is ________.

[A] a reflection of gender balance

[B] a reluctant choice

[C] a response to Reding’s call

[D] a voluntary action

38. According ti Reding, quotas may help women ______.

[A] get top business positions

[B] see through the glass ceiling

[C] balance work and family

[D] anticipate legal results

39. The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of _________.

[A] skepticism

[B] objectiveness

[C] indifference

[D] approval

40. Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of ______.

[A] more social justice

[B] massive media attention

[C] suitable public policies

[D] greater “soft pressure”

Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)

[A] Live like a peasant

[B] Balance your diet

[C] Shopkeepers are your friends

[D] Remember to treat yourself

[E] Stick to what you need

[F] Planning is evervthing

[G] Waste not, want not

The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has ?60 a week to spend, ?40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning ?130,000 a I year working in corporate communications and eating at London's betft restaurants'" at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. "The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a day-by-day thing." Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging - not about eating as cheaply as you can - "there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food" - but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies.

41._____________________

Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being-human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.

42____________________________________________________________

This is where supermarkets and thci; anonymity come in handy. With them,
there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little
greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you'll know that you only need, say, 350g
of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre-packed in the
supermarket chiller.

43_________

You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer - that's not
good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning
ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a
vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to "go off' will be cooked or juiced.

44___________________________________

Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers,
delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon
you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews,
or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than
not, Theyil let you have for free.

45__________________

You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few
months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant - ?1.75 a week for three
months gives you ?21 - more than" enough for a three-course lunch at
Michelin-starred Arbutus. It's ?16.95 there - or ?12.99 for a large pizza from
Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.

Section III Translation

Directions:

Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was , what happened in the news and even the day of the week. I’ve been able to do this since I was four.

I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs my mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away reatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everyone does- try to put it to one side. I don’t think it’s harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn’t make my emotions any more acture or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hosptibal the day before. I also remember that the musical paly Hamopened on the Broadway on the same day- they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

Section IV Writing

47. Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale foe kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to

1) inform them about the details and encourage them to participate .

2) Don’t use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead. Don’t write your address.(10 points)


48 write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1)interpret the chart and

2)give your comments

Youshouldwriteabout150wordsontheANSWERSHEET.

来源:万学海文

2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题解析

Section I Use of English

1.【答案】A(However)

【解析】空前作者讲到“鉴于电子货币的优势,你也许会认为,我们将快速步入非现金社会,实现完全电子支付。”而空后说“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”这两句话语义是转折的,因此答案A。 B. moreover表递进 C. therefore 表结果 D. Otherwise表对比

2.【答案】D (around)

【解析】由空格所在句的“but” 得知,句子前后是转折关系。事实上,这样的预测已经 二十年了,但迄今还没有实现。A. off 停止 B. back 返回 C. over 结束,与后文均不构成转折,故答案选D. around出现。

3.【答案】B (concept)

【解析】空格所在的句子意思为例如, 1975年《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段不久将“彻底改变货币本身的____”将四个选项带入,能够彻底改变的对象只能是金钱的概念(定义),而A“力量”,C“历史”,D“角色”,语义都不恰当,并且如果选择 role的话,应该是复数roles, 因为是金钱的作用不止一个,故答案选B。

4.【答案】D (reverse)

【解析】空格填入的动词跟前面的动词 revolutionize (变革)意思上应该是同义替换的,要选择含有变革,彻底改变意思的词汇,四个选项中A. reward 奖励 B. 抵抗 C. resume 重新开始,继续,都不合适,只有D选项reverse“颠覆”最为贴切,本句译为“电子支付方式不久将改变货币的定义,并将在数年后颠覆货币本身。”

5.【答案】C (slow)

【解析】根据前面的句意得知,早在1975年就预测了无现金社会将到来,而实际上作者讲到“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此也得出这种变革是一个缓慢的过程,故答案选择C。 A. silent沉寂的,B. sudden突然的,D. steady稳定不变的。

6.【答案】B (against)

【解析】上一段末句提出本段的论点,即人们进入无现金时代的速度缓慢的原因。因此本段应围绕纸币系统不会消失来阐述。而且由句首的Although得知,空格所在句与前一句是转折关系。尽管电子支付手段可能比纸币支付方式更加高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,故答案选B,work against妨碍,对…产生消极影响。A. work for 为…而工作 C. work with 与…共事,对…起作用 D. work on 从事…工作,对…起作用,都不合适。

7.【答案】B (expensive)

【解析】本句陈述的原因都是关于上句提到的传统支付方式的优点,即推广电子支付方式不利之处。所以根据这个基调,得出选项productive不对,最后根据空后的内容推理出消极意思的选项expensive,其他选项意思放到空格处不合理,imaginative,意思是“虚构的、富于想象力的”;sensitive,意思是“敏感的、容易受伤的”。故本题正确答案为B。

8.【答案】D(dominant)

【解析】空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将四个选项带入,C, D是比较恰当的,再结合本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的D选项。A. similar 相似的B. original原始的,独创的,都不合适。

9.【答案】B (provide)

【解析】 纸质支票支付能够____收据,这是和电子支付相比的一大优势,A. collect 收集收据,C. copy 复印收据,D. print打印收据都和实际生活不符合。应该是B. provide提供收据。

10.【答案】A (give up)

【解析】该动词短语的宾语是前文的something, 指代上文的advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这一优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是B. take over接管,也不能是C. bring back拿回来,D. pass down传递、遗传也不符合。A. give up放弃一种优势,符合语境,为正确答案。

11. 【答案】A (before)

【解析】这里考查的是时间连词的应用。句子意思是“在支票兑换成现金之前要花上好几天”,符合句意的只有before,其它三项都不符合。

12. 【答案】D (withdrawn)

【解析】这里考查动词辨义。原文句子意思是“资金是从发卡机构的账户里提取的”,withdraw有“提款、取款”的意思,这里是指纸币从银行账户中“被取出”故为正确答案。

13. 【答案】C (Because)

【解析】这里考查的是连词的应用。从原文可以看出空后的两个句子在意思上存在着因果关系,“因为电子支付是即付的,所以消除了客户的付款”。四个选项中只有C because可以表因果,其他三项均不能表因果。故答案为C。

14. 【答案】C( raise)

【解析】 这里考查的是动词辨析以及上下文语义衔接。[A] hide “隐藏,隐瞒”,[B] express “表达,表示”,[C] raise “举起,提高,引发”,[D] ease “减轻,缓和”,四个选项中能和concerns 构成搭配的只有raise,故正确答案为[C]。

15.【答案】C.(stored)

【解析】这句讲了an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information__________ there. “一些黑客入侵电脑数据库并且更改_____信息”根据空前信息可知是入侵电脑数据库,所以information 是被储存在电脑数据库中的信息。

16.【答案】C.(uncommon)

【解析】此题考查一致性。空格所在句“The fact that this is not an__16_occurrence means that…”中this指代上文中that从句的内容,即黑客能够获取电脑数据库和更改储存的信息。因此not an_16_occurrence应该能体现这一行为的特征,而上文提到“We often hear media reports that…”,其中的often正是对这一行为的特征解释,即not an__occurrence等于often的含义,对比选项,只有C选项uncommon符合,带入后意为“经常发生的事情”。

17.【答案】A (steal)

【解析】本题缺少谓语动词,通过语法结构可以看出,主语是dishonest persons,并通过后面的其他人的帐户,可以推定为答案是负向的,只有A steal符合题意,语义上也说得通,故为正确答案。

18.【答案】B.(prevention)

【解析】文章最后一段首句谈论电子付费方式的又一个缺陷:会引起安全和隐私问题。接下来就开始解释这个现象。空格所在句提到“对这种欺诈的_18__绝非易事,而且一个新的电脑科学领域正在形成来_19__安全问题。”因此,本句在谈论对问题的解决应对。18空格与19空格所填内容语意上应该是一致的。浏览选项,18空只能选prevention,即防止这种欺诈行为发生并非易事,而C选项manipulation是“操纵”的意思,D选项justification意为“解释,证明……合理”,均不合理。

19.【答案】A.(cope with)

【解析】此空格解释同18空格,应选有“处理,解决”意思的选项,只有A选项cope with合适。B选项fight against意为“对抗,抵制”,而宾语是security issues,因此不符合。

20.【答案】D.(trail)

【解析】此空所在句提出了使用电子付费方式的又一个担心,即会留下__20_,空格后的定语从句解释了空格内容,即它包含大量个人数据。浏览选项,只有trail符合,意为“痕迹”。B碎片从语义上均说不通,C路径有一定的干扰性,但相比较D而言,痕迹更为合适,故为正确答案

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21.【答案】A

【解析】第一段第二行指出笑话是关于纺织厂自动化程度的,后一句具体说明了笑话的内容:工厂平均每天只有两个人,一人一狗。人的工作是喂狗,狗的工作是看机器,暗示了工厂所有的生产工作都是由机器自动完成的。因此,这个笑话是用来说明技术进步的影响,故选A。

22.【答案】D

【解析】 事实细节题,通过题干“根据第3段,要想成为一个成功的雇员,一个人得……”, 我们首先可以定位到文章第三段,由第三段的最后一句话“Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.”意思是“因此,人人都需要有另外的价值,异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。”,我们可以得出,题干中“to be a successful employee”与第三段的最后一句话中的“that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment”是同义替换,“everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution”与D选项中的“contribute something unique”是同义替换,所以D选项正确。

A、B两个选项与第三段的倒数第二句话意思不符,是干扰选项。C选项与第三段的第一、二句话意思相反,重点关注的是“But ,today ,average is officially over.”,意思是“现如今,拥有一般水平不行了。”

23. 【答案】B

【解析】根据题干定位到第四段,第一句technology has been eating jobs(技术使工作机会减少)也反映了该段的主旨。而根据题干quotation一词,我们读到引号里有“shed workers (解雇工人)”、“roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared (大约1/3的手工生产工作机会消失,总计6百万)”,可推断出B选项。

24. 【答案】B

【解析】细节题。根据题干reduce unemployment减少失业,可以定位到文章中最后一段,这段出现了与之类似的表达“support employment” 促进就业,而题干表述“the most important”与文章“nothing would be more important than”相对应,指出促进就业最重要的是颁布类似于“G.I.Bill”的法案来保障人们接受高等教育的权利,选项C与之吻合,故正确。A项加速信息技术产业变革,C项促进经济全球化,均未提及,故排除。D项是干扰项,虽提及要颁布更多法案,但颁布法案的目的实际是为了保障教育,故也排除。

25.【答案】C
【解析】该题是主旨大意题,主要考查考生根据文章内容凝练主旨大意的能力。从整个文章的脉络来看,第一段以亚当?大卫森一篇论文中关于现代工厂自动化与仅需要一人一狗两个员工的一则笑话,揭示了科技进步给人们带来的影响。第二三段是科技的进步引起工厂自动化水平提高,普通员工如果没有竞争力和突出优势,就很容易失去工作,因此也对员工提出了更高的要求(extra-unique value contribution)。第四段就是员工只有不断地提高自己的教育水平,才能让自己脱颖而出(to have more and better education to make themselves above average)。最后一段点明主题,average is officially over。由此可见,全文一直在围绕这一宏观主线展开,这一主线也统领全文,所以正确答案为C。

Text 2

26.【答案】C (stay in a foreign temporarily)

【解析】词义句意题。根据题干,首先定位到首段末句。在这句中,birds of passage是前面一句中的1/4的意大利移民的昵称,他们只在美国居住了一段时间,但最终还是返回意大利。A项的内容在首段首句有提及,但是它突出强调的是横跨大西洋的移民,这也是一世纪前的情况,而如今birds of passage可能来自世界各个角落,并非局限于大西洋两岸。B项与段意不符,D项文中未提及。

27.【答案】C (should be adopted to meet challenges)

【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,直接定位到第二段。解题关键可定位到“…, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond stick definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, …We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.”大意是“我们需要改变的是关于分类的思考方式,突破合法和非法的严格限制。首先承认短暂移民者的存在,然后解决移民问题面临的挑战。”C项高度总结了以上几点。A项与原文意思不符。B、D项在文中未提及。

28.【答案】D (the freedom to stay and leave)

【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,可定位到第三段。解题关键在于对“They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them .They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.”大意是“他们跟着机会走,来去自如。他们可以在一个地方立业,在另一个地方成家”。强调的是工作机会,而不在乎工作地点。D项是这句意思的高度概括。A项是对原文的片面理解,吸引短暂移民者的不仅仅是来自金钱的激励(financial incentives),还有工作机会和工作理念。B项在文中未提及。C项中的regular jobs(一般工作)在文中未提及,也是对文意的曲解。

29.【答案】C (with legal tolerance)

【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,可定位到第五段。题干问到“根据作者的意思,我们(美国)应该怎样对待这些短暂移民者?”在本段中,作者写道我们应该“Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system”,大意是“我们应该超越移民合法性方面的文化之争,重现看待中间地段,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”,暗含了C项中的tolerance也就是对multiple paths and multiple outcomes的改写。A、B和D项在文中未提及。

30.【答案】D (legal or illegal: big mistake)

【解析】主旨大意题。文章第二段第二句中提到“我们把新移民分成两类:合法移民和不合法移民”,同时作者认为“我们不需要局限于合法与不合法这样严格的定义”,这说明了从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类是错误的。另外,文章最后一段最后一句“包括在现行的移民体系中不容易合法的实现的一些事情”也反映了文章的中心。即,从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类是错误的。故选D(合法或非法:大错误)。 A项谈到短暂移民者的移动是个错误,偏离了文章主旨。B和C项说的是risk(风险),文中并未提及,偏离文章主旨。

Text 3

31.【答案】 [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“作决定过程中所需的时间可以_____”。文章第一段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿时间来思考,那么将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。文章第二段第二句话也隐含本题正确答案线索。第二句以But这一转折连词引导,应该重点关注其后表达的信息,“但是,我们需要更多的时间来评估其他要素。”而本段的第三、四句子,很明显地揭示出本题正确答案,尤其是第三个句子中的“accurately” 一词。选项D中的表达“可预先决定判断的准确性”,此外,此选项中的“accuracy” 为“accurately ”的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项A表达“依形势紧急性而定”错在无中生有,本文并没有出现类似信息;选项B“证明大脑反映的复杂性”,也是无中生有;选项C “取决于评估的重要性”,也与原文不符合,故排除。

32.【答案】[A] can be associative

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“我们对于快餐商标的反应速度表明决定是_____样的”,由题干的“fast-food logo”我们可以定位到第三段。第二段说处理人际关系问题时人们会仓促决定,第三段开头就说了,让人做出仓促决定的刺激因素不仅限于人际关系范围内。紧接着一句说人们对快餐商标的反应速度比一般阅读速度快。下一句阐述了原因:因为人们无意识地(unconsciously)将“快餐”与“速度”和“心急”联系在一起,并将这些冲动付诸行动。A说决定是有联系性的,正确,因为人们将“快餐”与“速度”,“心急”联系在了一起。B说决定是无意识的,与原文意思相反,错。C说决定是危险的,原文未提及,排除。D说决定是不冲动的,与原文意思相悖,故排除。

33.【答案】[C] think before we act

【解析】细节题。先看题干说“为了逆转仓促决定所带来的影响,我们可以做_____”, 根据题干定位到第四段。第四段通过两个例子说明我们应该怎样克服负面影响,第一个例子表示“如果我们会对消费产品或者房产选择做出“过度反应”,我们可以在购买之前先思考一会儿”,由此可说明我们应该在行动之前先思考来消除负面影响,因此选择答案C。其他选项:A项“相信我们的第一印象”;B项“按照人们通常所做的去做”;D项“征求专家意见”均不符合题意。

34.【答案】[D] adequate information

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“John Gottman认为可靠的快速反映是基于_____的。”由题干John Gottman 定位到全文倒数第二段。其中第一句:John Gottman, the marriage expert,the marriage expert,explains that we quickly”thin slice”information reliably only after we gound such snap reactions in ”thick sliced”long-term study.婚姻专家约翰.古德曼解释说,我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是建立在这样的快速反应的行为是以长期的研究为基础而做出的快速反应行为。其中gound是题干中base on 的同意置换,long-term study长期的研究与D选项adequate information相互呼应。由此可判断出[D] adequate information(足够的信息)是本题正解。该段第二句话是When Dr,Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer eveluation,two days ,not two seconds.当古德曼博士想去评估一对夫妻是否应该继续在一起时,他会邀请他们到他的岛上进行一个更为长期的调查,是两天而不是两秒。第二句是对第一句的举例说明,更加验证此选项。

35.【答案】[C] optimistic

【解析】态度题。根据35题题干reversing the high-speed trend是全文的最后一句,所以解此题可先定位到全文的最后一段。最后一段最后两句:Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.译为:尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是它并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有能力去克服诱惑并扭转这种高速度的趋势。由此我们可以看出作者的态度是非常确定的,因此B选项uncertain(不确定)首先排除;We still have the imaginative capacity…表面作者对于我们的能力是有信心的。因此[C] optimistic(乐观的)是正解。A选项tolerant(容忍的) 、D选项doubtful(怀疑的)在原文中没有体现,属于无中生有的选项。

Text 4

36.【答案】B men have the final say

【解析】根据题干corporate workplace定位到第一段。首句就说欧洲性别不平等,in particular进一步指出corporate workplace,说明工作中性别尤其不平等。紧接着说欧洲公司高管职位remain overwhelmingly male,说明以男性为主导。Indeed进一步解释,指出女性在欧洲公司董事会只占有14%的席位。所以,B选项是基于首段信息给出的推论。A项women take the lead和D项senior management is family-friendly都与原文相反;C选项是对文章overwhelm这个词出的干扰项。

37.【答案】A a reflection of gender balance

【解析】根据题干,定位到第二段首句,intended legislation是对is now considering legislation的同义改写。该句意思为“欧洲国家现在考虑立法来迫使公司董事让妇女的比例达到60%”,因此立法是为了保持性别的平衡。B选项的reluctant是对第5段的Reding’s reluctance出的干扰项,并不是说European Union的立法。C选项a response to Reding’s call不正确,Reding号召的是voluntary action, D也是干扰项,而真正的立法缘由是对gender balance的反思,所以A项正确,也是文章中心的反映。

38.【答案】A get top business positions

【解析】定位至第4段,Reding说自己不喜欢quotas,后面出现了but,他真正的观点在but之后,他说他喜欢quotas所做的事情,即get action,后面的冒号是对get action的解释。核心的答案在a result seen in France and other coutries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions。a result是前面内容的同位语,进一步补充说明,所以选A。B项see through the glass ceiling是对原文break through the glass ceiling的望文生义,属于肤浅选项,也和原文意思不符。C和D选项属于无中生有。

39.【答案】D approval

【解析】本题问的是作者对Reding的呼吁的态度。Reding的appeal最早出现在第2段,即呼吁在董事会中有40%的女性,以实现性别均衡。而第四段再一次提到Reding 的观点即“他自己也不喜欢quotas,但是quotas本身确实起到了作用”;接着作者在第五段给出了自己的观点,先是说可以理解Reding,自己本身也不喜欢quotas,但是“既然现在meritocratic ideal(精英管理的理想)有障碍,确实需要一种强制的手段,即强制设定男女比例。”所以可以看出作者是持“赞成”的态度。

40.【答案】C suitable public policies

【解析】题干中的women entering top management become headlines是对第6段第二句话when women do break through to the summit of the corporate power的同义改写,become headlines是对后面for example所举的Sheryl Sandberg的事例的概括。答案出现在第7段开头。第7段是提出一种解决措施,“If appropriate pubic choices were in place to help all women, ...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy...”,这个句子是if虚拟条件句,是对未来的一种美好展望,也是提出观点的一种方式,意思是“如果有合理的公共政策来帮助所有的女性,Sandberg也就没有报道价值了”。所以正确答案是C,因为缺少“suitable public policies”。

Part B

41.【答案】F Planning is everything

【解析】段落首句谈到“Impulsive spending isn’t an option, so plan your work’s menu in advance...”,其表达的含义是:冲动消费不是一个好的选择,所以提前计划你一周的菜单,为你所需材料的具体数量做一个购物清单。首句中出现了因果逻辑关联词so,而下文又没有出现明显转折,因此首句是本段的中心句。文章进而提及作者为此专门做一个Excel表格,并且认为这样做不仅花钱少并且有助于均衡饮食。显然文章的中心在于首句谈到的“plan”,而中心不是选项B表达的“balance your diet”,故答案为F。

42.【答案】E Stick to what you need

【解析】段落第二句话中的代词“them”指代第一句中的“supermarkets and their anonymity”。该句通过这一指代顺接第一句,表达了一个否定的含义,即你不需要在小贩那里感到尴尬。紧接着第三句用肯定的语气指出“if you plan properly, you’ll know that you only need... 350g of shin of beef... ”即如果你合理的规划,你就会清楚知道你想要什么,比如你只需要350克牛肉。作者通过语义上层层递进的方式指出了这一段的中心:你需要什么就买什么,要对你所需要购买的东西的分量要坚持。因此选项E为正确选项。

43.【答案】G Waste not, want not

【解析】本段内容首先谈到“你可能骄傲的说冰箱里只有冷冻的青豆,但是这还不够”。这句话中虽然没有明显的转折词,但在语义上属于隐性转折,因此段落的重点应该在后面。第二句提到“Mine is filled with...”,其中Mine等于my freezer,通过指代顺接上一句话。接着第三句前半句指出“提前做好计划可以避免浪费”,后半句具体陈述了怎样避免浪费。其中“eliminate wastage”与选项G中的“waste not”构成同义替换。虽然该句中出现了planning, 但是本段的主要内容是谈到对于剩余的食物要尽可能充分利用,从而避免浪费。所以选项G谈到“不浪费,不愁缺”为正确选项。

44.【答案】C Shopkeepers are your friends

【解析】该段首句的句内出现转折,重点在转折之后。第一句but转折之后提到“it really is a top tip”,即这真的是一个好的提议。那么首先要还原it所指代的内容。句前没有提供信息,句后第二句提到“shop at butchers,...regularly, ..and be super friendly”。其中“be friendly”通过词性转换和选项C中的“are your friends”够成同义替换。同时,根据就近指代原则,这也是it所指代的内容。最后一句通过具体的信息描述了购物时表现出友好的态度所带来的好处:they will let you have for free(通常他们都会免费给你),因此选项C为正确选项。

45.【答案】D Remember to treat yourself

【解析】该段首句句内出现转折,重点在转折之后。第一句but后提到“save your pennis and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch”,其表达的含义是要节省钱,但可以每几个月款待自己一次。而该句也是本段落的中心句。段落余下的信息都是在用数据来解释这个道理。选项D中出现了“treat yourself”,属于原词复现。因此选项D为正确选项。

Section III Translation

46. 翻译

参考译文

从过去的53年间任选一天,我能立刻回想起当时我身在何方,当天新闻中发生何事,甚至那天是周几。自从四岁,我就具备这种能力。

我从不会因大脑吸信息量过大而感到难以承受。我的大脑似乎可以处理它们,并将其有序地存储于脑中。每当忆及忧伤往事,和其他人一样,我会尽量将其搁置一旁。我不认为因为我的记忆更为清晰,自己就比其他人更难做到此事。好记性并没有让我的情感体验更鲜活生动。祖父去世那天的情景和之前那天我去医院看望他时的伤心欲绝都历历在目。我也还记得当天在音乐剧《毛发》百老汇开场演出。这两件事都以同样的方式跃入我的脑海。

【解析】

1. I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week.

【词汇】instantly:立即、马上;

【分析】句子主干为I can pick a date…and know…;宾语部分为where…,what…and even…。句子中并列结构突出。

【译文】从过去的53年间任选一天,我能立刻回想起当时我身在何方,当天新闻中发生何事,甚至那天是周几。

2. I’ve been able to do this, since I was four.

【分析】句子主干为I’ve been able to do this, since 引导时间状语从句

【译文】自从四岁,我就具备这种能力。

3. I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs.

【词汇】overwhelmed:压垮,压倒,淹没; absorb:吸收

【分析】句子主干为I never feel overwhelmed with…,省略关系词的定语从句my brain absorbs作后置定语修饰information

【译文】我从不会因大脑吸信息量过大而感到难以承受。

3. My mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away neatly.

【词汇】cope:处理; store:存储; neatly:整齐的,整洁的

【分析】句子主干为My mind seems to be…and the information is…

【译文】我的大脑似乎可以处理它们,并将其有序地存储于脑中。

4. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everybody does---try to put it to one side.

【词汇】think of:考虑,想起;

【分析】句子主干为I do what…what引导宾语从句,破折号后try to put it to one side对其进行解释说明;when引导时间状语从句。

【译文】每当忆及忧伤往事,和其他人一样,我会尽量将其搁置一旁。

5. I don’t think it’s harder for me just because my memory is clearer.

【词汇】clear:清晰的

【分析】句子主干为I don’t think its harder for me, because引导原因状语从句。It指代上句话内容。

【译文】我不认为因为我的记忆更为清晰,自己就比其他人更难做到此事。

6. Powerful memory doesn’t make my emotions any more acute or vivid.

【词汇】powerful:强大的,权力大的; emotion:情感,情绪; acute:敏锐的,敏感的; vivid:生动的,形象的

【分析】句子主干为Powerful memory doesn’t make…

【译文】好记性并没有让我的情感体验更鲜活生动

7. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before.

【词汇】recall:回忆起,回想起

【分析】句子主干为I can recall the day…and the sadness…省略引导词的定语从句my grandfather died作后置定语修饰the day;同样省略引导词的定语从句I felt修饰sadness(定语从句关系词做宾语时可以省略);when引导时间状语从句对the sadness I felt进行修饰。

【译文】祖父去世那天的情景和之前那天我去医院看望他时的伤心欲绝都历历在目

8. I also remember that the musical play Hair opened on Broadway on the same day---they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

【词汇】musical play:音乐剧; Hair:《毛发》(1968年上演,是对美国百老汇音乐剧的颠覆,获得托尼奖); Broadway:百老汇; pop:突然出现

【分析】句子主干I also remember that…,that 引导的宾语从句主干为the musical play Hair opened…;破折号后they指代前两句话的内容,表示同一天发生的两件截然不同的事件,突出前面提到的好记性并未使我的情感体验更鲜活生动。

【译文】我也还记得当天在音乐剧《毛发》百老汇开场演出。这两件事都以同样的方式跃入我的脑海。

Section IV Writing

47. 应用文范文

Dear my beloved classmates,

On the evening of January 4th, 2013, we will hold a charity sale for children who need help at the school auditorium.

The kids come from remote areas where they can not be educated properly. Our assistance may change their destinies. Many pop stars, such as Jay and Jackie Chan, will attend the activity. The school master and most of the teachers of our school will also join us.

I trust you will be disengaged and able to give the poor children a hand. Thank you very much for your kindness.

Yours sincerely

Li Ming

48. 大作文写作

Emerging from the bar-chart above is a popular phenomenon that the proportion of the students having par-time jobs has changed during the four years’ study. The proportion increases slightly from the first year to the third year, however, the fourth year has witnessed a fast increase, surging to 88.24%.

As they are about to enter into the society, more people think that concurrent post after school benefits greater than disadvantage, cast aside making money to no comment. The bar-chart above serves to remind us that qualifications are something essential if you want to find a good job after you leave school, but on the other hand, college students can get some working experience which is as valuable as their academic achievement.

Anyway, in my point of view, it is difficult to judge whether taking part time jobs is good or bad. It depends on how you deal with the relationship between working and learning. If you can balance it well, you are sure to get enough knowledge as well as experience, so as to get ready for your future success.

来源:万学海文

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