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英语常用词组及搭配

  • 更新时间:2009-07-19 16:36
  • 来源:少儿教育
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内容提要:
    △get vt. 得到、获得、收到、买、赢、生(病)、感染(疾病) 使发生、使处于某种状态:get+sb./sth、不定式/分词/adj/介词短语 link-v.变得:He got excited at the good news.

△get
vt. 得到、获得、收到、买、赢、生(病)、感染(疾病)
使发生、使处于某种状态:get+sb./sth、不定式/分词/adj/介词短语
link-v.变得:He got excited at the good news.
含get词组
1、get along/on with 进展、进行;与……相处(好).例:
How are you getting along/on with your chemistry?
2、get on 登上、骑上、穿上、戴上,继续(做某事);
例:get on ones hat , get on with your work ,继续干你的工作
How are you getting on ? 日子过得怎么样?
3、get away(from) 走开、离开、逃走;get in touch with 与……取得联系,get in a word
插话,get in ones way 挡路
4、get back vi.回来, get sth.back vt.取回,拿回来
5、get in the crops vt.收割/收获庄稼,get on ones way 挡路
6、get into 陷入,养成,get into trouble ,get into the habit of 养成……的习惯
7、get off 下车,脱掉,起飞,动身、下班.
例:get the wet clothes off 脱去湿衣服
  The plane got off at 7:00.
  He got off (=started off) before 5:00 他五点前动身.
8、get out 出去,离开,摆脱,逃脱(of)
9、get to 到达,开始,get to business/talking 开始做事/说起来
  get to know (come to know)逐渐知道……
10、get together vi.聚集,碰头
11、get up vi.起床,起身,站起来


△dress vt. vi.穿衣
  dress sb. 替……穿衣(注意宾语是人不是衣服) be/get dressed 穿好衣
  例:He is well dressed this morning 今天上午他穿得很好。
    Get dressed quickly !快点穿好衣服!
    be/get dressed in +颜色/衣服。
  例:He is dressed in blue (clothes) 他穿着蓝衣服。 
    表示“穿戴”的动词(短语):
    1)wear vt.穿、佩戴(手表、徽章、戒指、花、眼镜等),表示穿的状态
  例:Do you know the man wearing glasses?
    2)have on 穿着(=be wearing)表某一段时间的状态,无进行式和分词形式(不能说He is
    /was having on ……,不能用having on 作定语或宾补、伴随状语等)
    3)put on 表“穿”、“戴”动作,反义词为take off
  例:put on ones shoes/clothes/cap/sock
    4)pull on (随便地)穿上/套上,其反义词为throw off
  例:pull on ones gloves/shoes/boots/cap
    5)throw on ( 匆匆)穿上/套上,其反义词为throw off
  例如:He threw on a jacket and ran after her.
    6)try on 试穿(衣帽等)(指某人自己试)
    7)fit on 试穿 例:We will fit the new clothes on you.


△give vt.给、递给、委托、提供
  give sb.sth.=give sth.to sb.
  含give 词组
1、give a concert/report/talk.etc 举行音乐会/报告会/讲座等
2、give away 赠、送
3、give in 与give up:give in vi.屈服、让步、投降 give up vt.v.i放弃、停止、戒除(后接名词、动名词)。
  例:She has to give in to my views.她不对我的意见让步
    give up ones seat to sb.把座位让给某人
4、give out vt.发生、放出(气体、气味、光、热等)(=give off/send out)公布、耗尽、筋疲力尽
  例:The man gave out .这个人精疲力尽了。
    Their food gave out.他们的食物用完了。
5、give lessons to 给……上课
6、give sb.advice (on sth) (就某事)给某人忠告


△go vi.去,link-v变为
  1、go +地点副词:go home/there/upstairs/downstairs/abroad/……
  2、go to +地点名词:go to the factory/park/zoo/……
  3、含go to 短语:go to bed,go to sleep,go to school,go to work上班,go to prison 去坐牢,go to sea 去航海,当水手,go to the cinema/the movie/the film去看电影
  4、go + v-ing:go shopping/swimming/boating/fishing/skating/walking/hunting/
running/……
  5、gone adj.作表语,宾补(不能作定语)。
   例:My watch is gone./ I found my watch gone.
  6、go+adj.例:go mad/hungry/wrong 发疯/挨饿/出问题含go 的词组:
  1、go by (时间)过去,经过(地点)
  2、go down下去,(船等)下沉
  3、go on (时间)过去,流逝(=go by);发生,进行,继续下去
  例:As time went on,we got to know each other./Whats going on over there ?那里发生了什么事?
  4、go out 出去,(灯、火)熄灭
  5、go over 复习、预习、过一遍,检查

△have “使得”意
  1、have sth.done
   1)叫/让别人做:I cant do it,but Ill have it done. 
   2)完成某事(自己并没参预):We have had your medicine prepared now.
   3)自己经历,蒙受过某事:She had her necklace lost. 她丢了项链。
  2、have sb./sth. doing 让某人/某物一直做/一直持续某种状态
   例:Dont have the machine turning all the time./Ill have the car waiting.
  3、have sb.do 让某人做某事
  4、以上三种结构的否定式have 可表“允许”、“忍受”、“容忍”意。
   例:Weve never had anything against her.我们决不能容忍别人说那些反对她的话。
     They cant have that sort of things happening.他们不能容忍那种事情一直发生下去。
     Ill not have you tell him what to do .我不允许你告诉他怎么做。
  5、have sth.to do 与have sth.to be done 的区别: 
   一般情况下应说have sth.to do ,如:I have a lot of thing to do today while she
has nothing to do.但是如果不定式动作不是句子主语发出的,则要用have sth.to be
done句式,如:Ill go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted?
我要去邮局,你有信要我寄发吗?


△hope,wish.want,expect
  1、hope vt.句式 hope to do sth.,hope+that从句hope for 希望(发生某种情况):We hope for an early spring.
    hope for the best and prepare for the worst作最好的打算.作最坏的准备。
  2、wish 常用来表示“祝愿”。句式:
   1)wish to do sth.
   2)with sb.to do sth.
   3)with +宾语+宾补(由名词、形容词充当):Wish you success/successful.
   4)wish +宾从(谓语用虚拟语气)
   5)wish for 希望得到,盼望:We wished for rain.
  3、want vt.句式:
   1)want +名/代
   2)want to do sth
   3)want sb.to do sth.
   4)want +宾语+过去分词/现在分词 
   例:I dont want my child taken out after dark.
     Mother doesnt want me getting into trouble.
   5)want doing :需要(含有被动意思)
    My watch wants repairping 我的表需要修。
    to be repaired
  4、expect 句式:  
    1)expect sb./sth
    2)expect to do sth
    3)expect sb.to do sth
    4)expect +that从句


△keep vt.link-v
  vt.保留、保存、遵守、履行,照顾、养活、经营、管理,使继续处于某种状态。
  例:Keep ones promise /word 信守诺言
    He kept them working all day.
    They kept the food locked up .
    link-v.保持,继续
  例:Keep calm /silent /quiet.
    含keep词组:
    1、keep back 隐瞒,扣下,不付,留在后面,使不往前。
     例:Keep nothing back from you 对你没有隐瞒,keep back 20 yuan 扣下22元(不付)
     keep back ones tears 忍住眼泪
    2、keep back vt. vi.维持,保持,继续。
     例:Keep up your courage 鼓起勇气,keep up the spirits 保持高昂的精神
    3、keep up with 跟上,与……保持一致
    4、keep off……避开,挡住
     例:keep off=keep away from
    5、keep……out (of)挡住,使……不进来
     例:keep out the cold/the visitors.抵御寒冷/谢绝来访者
    6、keep out of 置于事外,不惹,不干涉。
     例:Keep out of their quarrel. 不要介入他们的争吵

  有关keep句式
  1、keep doing sth.反复/持续做某事。
   例:Dont give up ,do keep trying.
  2、keep on doing sth.反复/持续做某事(注):此结构中的doing必须是动态动词,如
work,run,play等,不能是静止动词,心理状态动词。如:lie,sit,stand,hope.think
等。
  3、keep(=stop=prevent)sb./sth.from doing sth.阻止某人/某物做某事
  例:The rain kept him from going./Who kept their plan from being carried out ?


△look,seem,appear
  1、look vi.看,望,瞧,link-v看起来,vt打量
含look的词组
   1)look after (=take care of )照顾
   2)look arround /about/round vt.vi.四处看看,环视
   3)look at 看,看待,考虑
   4)look back(on)回顾,回想
   5)look for 寻找;指望(=expect)
   6)look forward to(+名词/动名词)盼望,希望
   7)look on 旁观,看待,把……看作。
   例: The crowd looked on as the police moved in./He look on that as useless./
I do not look on/upon him as a good doctor.
   8)look out 向外看;当心,小心(=watch out/watch it /be careful)
   9)look through 仔细查看,透过……望过去
   10)look up 向上看,仰望,查寻(号码、单词等)
   例:We should look up to the old.我们应该尊敬老人。
  2、seem vi.似乎,好象,常用句式:
   1)seem (to be)+形容词。
   例:Everything seems(to be)easy.
   2)seem+名词:He seemed an honest man
   3)seem like +句词:It seems like years since we separated.
   4)seem+不定式(否定式do not seem to do =seem not to do)
   例:He seems not to be sleeping./She doest seem to have been to Beijing.
   5)It seems that ……看起来……
   例:It seems to me that he is lying.
   6)It seems as if /though……看来似乎……
   例:It seemed as if he was sleeping.
  3、appear vi.显得
   (辩析)look,seem,appear
   1)appear根据外表作出判断,与look同义,但appear含实际上并非如此,seem表示说话人主观上的判断,三者常常只能用于一般现在时和一般过去时。例:
    He has a small salary but he appears rich.他薪水很少但显得很有钱。
    He looks rich.他看起来有钱。
    He seems rich.他好象有钱/富裕。
   2)seem,appear 后加形容词,名词时可加to be ,而look不可。  
    如:He seems (to be)angry./He looks angry.
   3)seem,appear后接不定式的各种形式,而look后不接不定式。
   4)seem,look后可接like,appear不能。
   5)seem,look后可接as if……,appear不可。
   6)seem appear 可用于形式主语it句型中,但look不可。
   7)seem,appear可用于there seems/appear to be ……结构中,但look不能。如:There appeared to be one room.


△make
  1、vt.使做(某事或成为),使役动词
   常用句式:make sb./sth.do / 形容词/名词
   例: Dont make your son do homework all day./We must make our country rich and strong/a rich and strong one./We made him chairman of the meeting./make oneself heard/understood/seen /recognized 使用自己被别人听见/懂得/看见/辩认出来
(注)make sb.do sth.→被动:sb.is made to do sth.
  2、实义动词:vt.做,制,安排,整理,完成
  常见搭配:make a bed 整理床铺/a change/a copy/a decision/a demand/a difference/a face(faces)/an effect/an excuse/a fire/friends/fun of/a living/a mistake/a name 成名/progress/a report/money/a speech/repairs修理/sentences with/preparations for/ones way 艰难向前/a joke/room for 为……腾地方/ones mark 成功/maps/an apology to sb./a promise/war 宣战/a success/bread/tea/coffee/up ones mind/a search for
  短语:
  1)be made of,be made from,be made into,be made out of,be made by,be made in,be made up of .
  2)make up 补偿,弥补,凑足,编撰,组成。
  3)make up for 弥补:You must make up for the lessons you missed.(for可省略)
  4)make sure of 利用(=use)
  5)make sure/certain 弄清楚,查明,核实。其后接of 短语/不定式/从句
  例:We must make sure of the facts. 我们必须弄清事实。

△put词组
  1、put away 放好,把……收起来,储蓄
  2、put down 放下,记下(=write down),平息,镇压
  3、put ……into 输入,(使)进入,把……译成
  4、put off推迟,延期:put off the meeting/writing to him推迟会议/给他写信
  5、put on 穿戴,上演(节目等)
  6、put out熄灭(灯、火)
  7、put up 举行,修建,搭起,挂上,张贴,住宿

△turn vi.转身,拐弯,转动;翻转,转身,颠簸
  vt.转动(钥匙等),使转向,翻动,使翻转,(使旋转)
  link-v 变得,后接adj./n(前面多不加冠词):He turned pale at the news./He
turned writer/teacher in 1980.1980年他成了作家/老师。
  含turn词组
  1、turn against背叛……,转而反对……
  2、turn down his suggestion/his firend/……拒绝接受收他的建议/他的朋友/……
    turn down the radio/……关小收音机/……反义语:turn up 开大……
  3、turn in 上交(vt.)
  4、turn into变成,把…变成…;翻译…成…
  5、turn on/off the radio/the light /the water/… 打开/关掉收音机/电灯/龙头/…
  6、turn out 关掉(电灯或煤气等),制造,被证明,结果是…
  7、turn over 把…翻过来,翻身,翻(页),撞翻,移交
  8、turn to page 20 翻到20页,turn to sb.向某人求助/求救
  9、turn up 向上翻,开大(音量),出现,到达
  10、turn away 走开,离开,转过身去,把……打发走,解雇,避免
 

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