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英语动词词组辨析

  • 更新时间:2009-07-19 16:34
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内容提要:
    1.agree with / agree to [辨析]agree with 和agree to都表示“同意;赞同”的意思,但后面所接的宾语不同。agree with后接指人或表示意见、看法的词;agree to 后接表示建议、计划、

1.agree with / agree to

[辨析]agree with 和agree to都表示“同意;赞同”的意思,但后面所接的宾语不同。agree with后接指人或表示意见、看法的词;agree to 后接表示建议、计划、安排之类的词。例如:

I quite agree with you. 我很同意你(的意见)。

Do you agree with what I have said? 你赞同我所说的话吗?

He has agreed to our suggestion about the holiday. 他已经同意我们度假的建议了。

 

agree with/ agree to/ agree on

agree with, agree to和agree on都表示“同意”,但用法不同。

◎agree with表示“同意”,后面接表示人的名词或代词,也可以接表示“意见,看法”的名词。

We all agree with him. 我们都同意他的意见。

Do you agree with my ideas? 你同意我的观点吗?

 

◎agree to表示“同意”,后面接表示“计划,建议,安排”等的名词,接动词原形时构成动词不定式结构。

He agreed to our plan at last. 最后他同意了我们的计划。

They agreed to come on Monday. 他们同意星期一来。

 

◎agree on表示“(两人以上)就……取得一致意见,在……方面意见一致”,其主语多为复数形式,宾语是表示事、计划等的名词,而不是表示人的名词或代词,它可以与agree in doing sth替换。表示经过协商,讨论或谈判而就某事双方取得了一致意见用on.

They agreed on the plan.

=They agreed in doing the plan. 他们对这个计划意见一致。

We agreed on leaving for Beijing the next day.

Why can they never agree on something?

 

◎     agree about sth 涉及讨论的题目

They never agree about politics.

They all agree about that.

 

特别提示

agree with也可以表示“某人适应(食物、气候等)”。

The weather doesn’t agree with me. 我不适应这种天气。

(2)disagree是agree的反义词,相当于not agree。

 

 

2.be able to / can

be able to与can 都有“会”“能够”的意思。

如:No one can do it.=No one is able to do it.

当表示现在或过去“能力所及”时,两者可通用。

He can/ is able to speak German.

I could /was able to run away fast when I was a boy.

但两者用法也有区别:

1. be able to 侧重强调能力,语气上要比can强一些。可用于多种时态,还可以和某些情态动词连用,其后接不定式。

No one is able to do it.

He was able to swim when he was quite young.

No one was able to answer the question.

I’m sorry I haven’t been able to answer your letter.

I’ve not been able to find the air ticket.

I haven’t been able to get in touch with her.

They will be able to finish the work tomorrow.

I shall be able to speak English well.

You might be able to catch up with them.

II. can也可表示能力,这时它和be able to同义,但它只有现在和过去两种时态形式,不能和其它情态动词连用。

Look! I can swim now.

My father could speak five languages.

III. can还可以表示“请求和允许“,而be able to则不能。

Can I carry your bag?

Can you help me?

IV. be able to的过去时还可以表示一种“经过努力做到了”的意思。Can的过去式则没有这种意义。

He started late, but he was able to catch the eight o’clock train.

 

Ex: 用can或be able to填空:

1. No one ______ do the work.

2. I ______ not ______ go to work for three days.

3. My little brother ______ swim well when he was only six.

4. I ______ finish the book next week.

5. He tried hard and ______ swim across the river.

6. He ______ not ______ come since he got hurt.

(1. can/ is able to  2. have, been able to  3. could/ was able to  4. shall be able to  5. was able to  6. has, been able to )

 

3.begin/ start

begin表示“开始”,其内涵是“使处于进程中”。例如:Knowledge begins with practice.从实践开始。

start  表示“开始”,其内涵是“起程”。例如:The meeting began last week.次会议是上星期开始的。会议是个过程,在这个意义上用begin 恰当。再如:A thousand-li journey is stared by taking the first step.千里之行,始于足下。所包含的意义是“起步”,所以用start恰当。

 

 

4.borrow/ lend/ keep

[辨析] 这两个动词都有“借”的意思。

1) borrow指向别人借东西(借入),常与from连用。即borrow sth from sb. (somewhere) 向某人或某处借某物 例如:

May I borrow your pen? 我可以借用一下你的钢笔吗?

I borrowed a dictionary from Li Lei yesterday. 我昨天向李磊借了一本字典。

Do you often borrow books from the library? 你经常从图书馆借书吗?

 

2) lend 指把东西借给别人(借出)。一般后面带双宾语。表示“把某物借给某人”,用lend sb sth=或lend sth to sb 例如:

I often lend her money. 我经常借给她钱。

You mustn’t lend it to others. 你一定不要把它借给别人。

Thank you very much for lending the dictionary to me. 非常感谢你把词典借给了我。

I have lost my pen. Would you please lend me yours? 我把钢笔弄丢了,你能把你的借给我吗?

注意:当sth为代词时,只能说lend sth to sb. 不能说lend sb sth 例如:

Please lend it to me. (T)

Please lend me it. (F)

 

3) keep指某物能“借”或“保留”多少时间,是持续性动词,而borrow, lend 都是短暂性动词。

How long can I keep the book? 这本书我能借多久?

I’ll lend you my dictionary, but you can only keep it for one day. 我将把我的字典借给你,但是你只能借一天。

[练习] 用borrow, lend和keep填空:

1. Would you please ______ your pencil to me?

2. I ______ five yuan from him yesterday.

3. You may ______ this book for three days.

4. I’m going to ______ you my bike.

5. Can I ______ your ruler?

6. I ______ some books from the library yesterday.

7. How long may I ______ the book?

8. He ______ me his car for an hour last night.

9. May I ______ your bike?

10. Who ______ you this book?

 

(key: 1. lend  2. borrowed  3. keep  4. lend  5. borrow  )

6. borrowed  7. keep  8. lent  9. borrow  10. lent )

 

5.choose/ select/ pick

choose, select, pick这组动词都有“挑选”的意思。

choose 强调在“选择”某物时的意愿,特别是当挑选物只有两个时,我们应当用choose。如:

You can choose any of the two books.你可以选择这两本书中的任何一本。

当供选择物多时,最好用select,因为有较多的被挑选物,被选人就必须加以鉴别。如:

They were selected from many applicants.他们是从许多请求者当中选出来。

pick在用作“挑选”时,不强调鉴别,也不强调意愿。如:

Tom picked a red shirt because he liked red.汤姆挑选了一件红衬衫,因为他喜欢红色。

6.cross/ pass

cross作动词,意为“横过;越过;穿过”,注意across是介词,不可以与cross昏庸,如:

They crossed the road。他们过了马路。

pass作动词,是指从某地、某物或某人的旁边“经过”,也表示从某物内部或人与热、无物与物之间“穿过”,还可以表示时间或空间的“经过“。如:

He passed the post office just now.  他刚才经过邮局。

 

 7.cost/ pay/ spend/ take

这四个词都可以表示“花费“,但用法有别。

cost的主语必须是“物“或”事“后常接life,money,health,time等词。如:

That suit costs me$.那件上衣花掉我6美元。

 

pay的基本意思是“支付”其后常接for。如:

He paid $5 for the book.他买这本书花了5美元。

 

spend的主语必须是“人”宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等,其后接on+名词或接(in)+动名词,但不能接动词不定式。如:

I spent an hour reading。我花了一小时读书。

He spent a lot of money on books.他花了许多钱买书。

 

take表示“花费”时,其主语与班是“一件事”,其句型为:It takes/took/sb。Some time/some money to do sth。如:

It takes us an hour to go there。到那里去我们要花一个小时。

 

 

8.dress/ wear/ put on

dress 作动词,意为“穿衣”。如:She is dressed very well. 她穿得很漂亮。

dress 之后通常接“人”,不接“衣服”。如:Dress yourself quickly. 你快点穿衣服。

wear意为“穿着”,指穿的状态。如:She is wearing a white dress today. 她今天穿着白色的服装。

put on 意为“穿上”,强调穿的动作。如:He put his coat on and went out. 他穿上外衣出去了。

 

[练习] 用dress, wear或put on 填空:

1) Do we have to ______ evening dress for the party?

2) Get up and ______ quickly.

3) It’s very cold outside. You’d better ______ your coat.

4) ______ she ______ the same clothes?

5) She washed and ______ the baby.

6) He ______ his glasses and read the letter.

7) She ______ like a film star.

8) I ______ glasses.

9) He was ______ in black.

10) They ______ up to go to the theatre.

 (key: 1. wear  2. dress  3. put on  4. is , wearing  5. dress  )

6. put on   7. dresses  8. wear  9. dressed  10. dressed

 

9.go on/ go on with/ go on doing sth/ go on to do sth

go on 继续

The game is going on.

 

go on with sth 继续(with后跟名词)

It was eleven o’clock at night, but Li Lei was still going on with his homework.

 

go on doing sth 继续做原来做的事

He went on reading the text.

The doctor went on working all the night.

 

go on to do sth  接着做另一件事

He had finished reading the text, and went on to do the homework.

他读完课文,接着做作业。

Lucy watched TV and went on to listen to the radio.

 

10.go to bed/go to sleep/ fall asleep/ sleep

go to bed: 指“上床睡觉”这一动作,但不一定睡着。

 go to sleep 强调“入睡”的动作。

fall asleep  强调“入睡”的状态。有时与go to sleep同义。

sleep 指“睡着”时,可与时间段连用。

 用go to bed, go to sleep, sleep, fall asleep填空

1) She ______ from eight in the evening to six in the morning.

2) I usually ______ at nine and ______ five minutes after that.

3) Mr Black was so tired that he ______ right after he ______.

4) Last night Wang Wei ______ very late. Now he is very tired. He’s ______. Wang Wei, wake up! You can’t ______ in class.

5) The baby ______ in her mother’s arm.

6) It’s time to ______.

7) The cock smiles and ______ high up in the tree.

8) I can’t ______.

9) The boy ______ at nine and ______ two minutes later.

10) He was tired. He ______ as soon as he sat down.

11) Mother is busy. She often ______ late.

12) I ______ at nine last night.

13) He didn’t ______ until twelve o’clock.

14) The children ______ very well in the night.

15) How many hours’ ______ do you need every day?

(1. sleeps/ slept  2. go to bed, go to sleep  3. fell asleep, went to bed  4. went to bed, sleeping, fall asleep  5. fell asleep  6. go to bed  7. goes to sleep  8. go to sleep  9. went to bed, fell asleep  10. fell asleep  11. goes to bed  12. went to bed  13. go to sleep  14. slept  15. sleep

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